Amir Zakaria Consulting Group | Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management, KM, innovation, organizational performance, competitive advantage, knowledge management environment, knowledge management processes, Product Lifecycle Management, Case-Based Reasoning, Codification strategy, personalization strategy, amir zakaria, nazli monajemzadeh, مديريت دانش, اميرذكريا, نازلي منجم زاده
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Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

Knowledge management is a discipline and function in which knowledge is created, acquired, shared, codified, and utilized through an enabling environment to increase innovation and organizational performance (Andreeva & Kianto, 2011; Hajir, Obeidat, Al-dalahmeh, & Masa’deh, 2015; Zack et al., 2009).

KM is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage for organizations, therefore, most of the companies try to find the best way to capture and reuse the knowledge generated during their processes.

There are two main components of knowledge management: knowledge management environment and knowledge management processes. The most important component is knowledge management process which creates the knowledge and survives irrespective of formal organizational support for knowledge management (Andreeva & Kianto, 2011; Shujahat et al., 2017).

Different studies define knowledge management processes in different ways. At the risk of oversimplification, knowledge management process aggregately is composed of knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, knowledge storage, and knowledge application (Costa & Monteiro, 2016; Inkinen, 2016). However, the operational definition of knowledge management processes is: the process of knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, and knowledge utilization (Ahmad, Lodhi, Zaman, & Naseem, 2017; Shujahat et al., 2017). The reason for the difference is that the definitions differ in their level of aggregation of the processes but are cynically related. In short, knowledge management involves three or four main processes as outlined by Andreeva and Kianto (2011).

Currently many multinational companies have manufacturing plants with similar processes, but they suffer from barriers to share knowledge. Knowledge Management (KM) techniques may help to capture and reuse knowledge generated during processes execution. Literature shows Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) as a technique for implementing KM, and Product Lifecycle Management Systems (PLM) as the main data repository of Product-Processes-Resources data (Camarillo et al., 2017).

Knowledge management ensures the right flow of knowledge through two primary strategies: codification and personalization (Shujahat et al., 2017). Codification strategy is related to the extraction and storing of the knowledge in explicit form through the ICT structure while personalization strategy focuses on the direct human-interactions for knowledge sharing purpose (Curado & Bontis, 2006; Merat & Bo, 2013; Shujahat et al., 2017).


  • Ahmad, N., Lodhi, M. S., Zaman, K., & Naseem, I. (2017). “Knowledge management: A gateway for organizational performance”. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8(3), 859–876.
  • Andreeva, T., & Kianto, A. (2011). “Knowledge processes, knowledge-intensity and innovation: A moderated mediation analysis”. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(6), 1016–1034.
  • Camarillo, A., Rios, J., Althoff, K.D. (2017). “CBR and PLM applied to diagnosis and technical support during problem solving in the Continues Improvement Process of manufacturing plants”. Manufacturing Engineering society international conference, procedia manufacturing 13(2017), P.987-994.
  • Curado, C., & Bontis, N. (2006). “The knowledge-based view of the firm and its theoretical precursor”. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 3(4), 367–381.
  • Costa, V., & Monteiro, S. (2016). “Key knowledge management processes for innovation: A systematic literature review”. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 46(3), 386–410.
  • Hajir, J. A., Obeidat, B. Y., Al-dalahmeh, M. A., & Masa’deh, R. (2015). “The role of knowledge management infrastructure in enhancing innovation at mobile telecommunication companies in Jordan”. European Journal of Social Sciences, 50(3), 313–330.
  • Inkinen, H. (2016). “Review of empirical research on knowledge management practices and firm performance”. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(2), 230–257.
  • Merat, A., & Bo, D. (2013). “Strategic analysis of knowledge firms: The links between knowledge management and leadership”. Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(1), 3–15.
  • Shujahat, M., Sousa, M.J., Hussain, S., Nawaz, F., Wang, M., Umer, M. (2017). “Translating the impact of knowledge management processes into knowledge-based innovation: The neglected and mediating role of knowledge-worker productivity”. Journal of Business Research.
  • Zack, M., McKeen, J., & Singh, S. (2009). “Knowledge management and organizational performance: An exploratory analysis”. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(6), 392–409.

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