07 May Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management (TQM) “often is defined as the continuous improvement of processes by all employees in the organization to better meet the needs of internal and external customers” (Sitkin et al., 1994, p. 541). The TQM philosophy is a form of multidimensional and integrated management based on different principles, practices and techniques, with a desire to improve performance as a means to meet customer specifications and expectations (Dean and Bowen, 1994; Hackman and Wageman, 1995).
TQM considers that performance is located in the processes and proposes treating the organization as an interconnected system of processes. Process management is a fundamental organizational innovation of TQM that allows the identification, improvement and control of key organizational processes (Ahire and Dreyfus, 2000; Flynn et al., 1995; Hackman and Wageman, 1995; Sitkin et al., 1994). Improvements are incorporated into processes by capitalizing on the information and knowledge available within the company. But TQM philosophy is not so much a set of values, principles or philosophical ideals, as it is management by fact. The process of continuous improvement of processes is based on performance indicators obtained through organizational measurement techniques that reflect the operation of the processes and, therefore, of the company. “These tools are used to facilitate the recognition of causes of variance in production and administrative processes, and they are prerequisites for taking the actions necessary to reduce variance or errors in order to more effectively meet customer needs” (Sitkin et al., 1994, p. 41). For TQM, improving processes is improving company results, rationalizing resources and intensifying commitment. The application of the principles related to this philosophy encourages observation and control of processes (Bititci and Muir, 1997; Kaynak, 2003; Mosadeghrad, 2006) so that the best practices are standardized and become organizational routines (Hackman and Wageman, 1995; Powell, 1995).
In a TQM work environment, workers’ expectations about working conditions, the identification of occupational risk and the consequences of their materialization/occurrence provide useful information for process improvement. Damage caused at work has direct and indirect negative effects on workers’ satisfaction and motivation, the company image and productivity (Fernández-Muñiz et al., 2009). Occupational accidents, occupational diseases and incidents are factors that cause variability, alter the normal operation of processes, decrease customer satisfaction and expectations, or worsen the organization’s position in the environment/its surroundings. Safety management problems prevent full implementation of TQM improvement strategy (Álvarez-Santos et al, 2018).
Quality Management System ISO 9001 can be applied in any organization regardless of the number of employees. Whether you have one employee or a large number of employees, size of the organization does not prevent the implementation of the system. And regardless of industry. In case of implementation of the quality management system, the first risk may occur is the choice consulting firm. If the chosen consultant has no experience, it can create more problems than benefits that organization.
Quality management system covers all processes within the organization, and that organization will operate according to procedures established by the consultant and representative organization.
In implementing the quality management system can appear a number of issues:
Any activity aimed at development, within the company, is effective only if its outcomes incorporate daily activity, ensuring a higher level, well above the previous activity. In case the result of the improvement cannot be introduced and applied in everyday work, we can say that improvement activity has not reached the goal. It finds on the one hand, the organization failed to spur a favorable investment own activity and, on the other hand, operational processes have not registered any progress. Therefore, we continue to face the same problems they had before.
The purpose of quality management system implementation is that, through continuous development, to help ensure the dual functions namely: continuous improvement of the activity and regulation of daily operational functioning (Tisca et al, 2015).
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- Álvarez-Santos, J., Miguel-Dávila, J., Herrera, L., Nieto, M. (2018). “Safety Management System in TQM environments”. Safety Science, 101, 135–143.
- Bititci, U.S., Muir, D. (1997). “Business process definition: a bottom-up approach”. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Manage. 17 (4), 365–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443579710159950.
- Dean, J.W., Bowen, D.E. (1994). “Management theory and total quality: improving research and practice through theory development”. Acad. Manage. Rev. 19 (3), 392–418.
- Fernández-Muñiz, B., Montes-Peón, J.M., Vázquez-Ordás, C.J. (2009). “Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance”. Saf. Sci. 47 (7), 980–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2008.10.022.
- Flynn, B.B., Schroeder, R.G., Sakakibara, S. (1995). “The impact of quality management practices on performance and competitive advantage”. Decision Sci. 26 (5), 659–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1995.tb01445.x.
- Hackman, J.R., Wageman, R. (1995). “Total quality management – empirical, conceptual, and practical issues”. Adm. Sci. Q. 40 (2), 309–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393640.
- Kaynak, H. (2003). “The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance”. J. Oper. Manage. 21 (4), 405–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(03)00004-4.
- Mosadeghrad, A.M. (2006). “The impact of organizational culture on the successful implementation of total quality management”. TQM Mag. 18 (6), 606–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09544780610707101.
- Powell, T.C. (1995). “Total quality management as competitive advantage: a review and empirical study”. Strateg. Manage. J. 16 (1), 15–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250160105.
- Sitkin, S.B., Sutcliffe, K.M., Schroeder, R.G. (1994). “Distinguishing control from learning in total quality management: a contingency perspective”. Acad. Manage. Rev. 19 (3), 537–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1994.9412271803.
- Tisca, I. A., Cornu, G., Diaconu, N., Dumitrescu, C. D. (2015). “Diagnosis, risk and efficiency in the implementation of TQM in small and medium enterprises”. 4th World Conference on Business, Economics and Management, WCBEM, Procedia Economics and Finance 26 (2015), 215 – 218.