01 Jul EFQM
The European Award of Quality (EFQM model) is a largely known model, which an institution can apply in order to implement Total Quality Management Principles in order to achieve excellence. The EFQM model consists of a set of criteria, which are mainly classified into two categories called “enablers” and “results” (Dervitsiotis, 2005; Blanas, 2003; Campatelli et al, 2011; Martin-Castilla, 2002). The nine EFQM model criteria are analyzed below based on international literature. The first five criteria – “enablers” (Leadership, Policies and Srategy, Human Resources, the collaborations – resources and procedures) are the basic factors that the company/organization must put into practice, so that it raises its performance (McAdam & Bannister, 2001).The four criteria that are left are the “results” (the results of customers, Human Resources, society and company/ institution).
- The leadership (leader) is the basic and most determining factor, which develops behaviors, activities, formulates visions and promotes a business culture, in which the business can excel. Moreover, it inspires and guides total quality, as the main process of the institution/ service towards Continuous Improvement.
- The criterion “policy and strategy” refers to exploring the way in which the strategy of the organization is oriented towards actions, which refer to the concept of Total Quality and is evidenced by policies, plans and activities, actions, which promote the implementation of the vision and the mission of the institution.
- Human Resource Management: This particular criterion focuses on the assessment of the way in which the institution/ service manages and improves human resources activities (Stefanatos, 2000), namely the intangible capital.
- Cooperation & Resources Management: Profit, competitiveness, increase of productivity, provision of goods and efficiency constitute the core factors for the success or failure of a business (Georgakis & Georgaki, 2007).
- The criterion “Processes” occupies central position among the conditions and the results.
- Customers’ satisfaction: Equally important is the satisfaction of external customers, who trust the products and services of the business. Customers’ satisfaction is the key to survival and to the successful course of any business in the future (Bennett & Rundle-Thiele, 2004, Mihelis et al., 2001, Anderson & Sullivan, 1993, Bernhardt et al., 2000).
- Employee Satisfaction: The present criterion is a major issue not only for employees, but also for institutions/businesses.
- Results on society. The particular criterion of EFQM model refers to and evaluates the various influences of each business on society. A company is undoubtedly an open system and an active part of society, because it consists of people living in it (Nijhof & Jeurissen, 2010, Breton & Pesqueux, 2006, Moir, 2001).
- Business results: The survival of each company or institution depends directly on the proper financial management, on the maximization of capitals and on the increase of its profits (Doyle & Hooley, 1992; Anastasiadou et al, 2015).
The EFQM Excellence Model is a model with fixed scale of criteria, on the grounds of which it is not only possible to objectively evaluate individual companies, but especially mutually compare them (benchmarking). In addition to Business Excellence status assessment, in the last period, with an increase of the corporate social responsibility importance, the model also became the basis for CSR evaluation.
The EFQM Excellence Model was first used in 1992 with the effort to improve the position of European companies in the competitive fight on global markets. It is a (EFQM, 2013) practical, non-prescriptive framework that enables organizations to assess where they are on the path to excellence; helping them to understand their key strengths and potential gaps in relation to their stated vision and mission. It is designed to be a practical and pragmatic tool, enabling an organisation to gain a holistic overview of their current level of excellence and prioritise their improvement efforts to maximise their impact. The EFQM Excellence Model has been incorporated with the CSR phenomena using the “Framework of CSR Reporting”. The model has a strong basis on (Thiengnoi and Afzal, 2009) service quality and further probes the integration of policy and strategic decision making with CSR having a strong focus on the stakeholder’s perspective (Jankal et al, 2016).
- Anastasiadou, S. D., Zirinoglou, P. A. (2015). “EFQM dimensions in Greek Primary Education System”. Procedia Economics and Finance 33, 411 – 431.
- Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). “The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms”. Marketing Science, 12(2), 125-43.
- Bennett, R., & Rundle-Thiele, S. (2004). “Customer satisfaction should not be the only goal”. Journal of Services Marketing, 18(7), 514-523.
- Bernhardt, K. L., Donthu, N., & Kennett, P. (2000). “A longitudinal analysis of satisfaction and profitability”. Journal of Business Research, 47(2), 161-71.
- Blanas, G. (2003). “Total Quality Networking”. Athens: Patakis.
- Breton, G., & Pesqueux, Y. (2006). “Business in society or an integrated vision of governance”. Society and Business Review, 1(1), 7-27.
- Campatelli, G., Cittib, P., & Meneghin, A. (2011). “Development of a simplified approach based on the EFQM model and Six Sigma for the implementation of TQM principles in a university administration. Total Quality Management, 22(7), 691-704.
- Dervitsiotis, Κ. (2005). “Total Quality Management”. Athens: Nomiki Blibliothiki.
- Doyle, P., & Hooley, G. J. (1992). “Strategic orientation and corporate performance”. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 9(1), 59-73.
- (2013). “EFQM Excellence Model”. Brussels: EFQM.
- Georgakis, K., & Georgaki, Α. Μ. (2007). “Organisation and Management”. (4th ed.). Athens: Rosili.
- Jankal, R., Jankalova, M. (2016). “The application of The EFQM Excellence Model by the evaluation of Corporate Social Responsibility activities of companies”. Procedia Economics and Finance 39, 660 – 667.
- Martin-Castilla, J. I. (2002). “Possible Ethical Implications in the Deployment of the EFQM Excellence Model”. Journal of Business Ethics, 39, 125-134.
- McAdam, R., & Bannister, A. (2001). “Business performance measurement and change management within a TQM framework”. International journal of operations and production management, 21(1/2), 88-107.
- Mihelis, G., Grigoroudis, E., Siskos, Y., Politis, Y., & Malandrakis, Y. (2001). “Customer satisfaction measurement in the private bank sector”. European Journal of Operational Research, 130(2), 347-360.
- Moir, L. (2001). “What do we mean by corporate social responsibility?”. Corporate Governance, 1(2), 16-22.
- Nijhof, A., & Jeurissen, R. (2010). “The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility: Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR”. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 30(11/12), 618-631.
- Stefanatos, S. (2000). “Total Quality”. Patra: EAP.
- Thiengnoi, P., Afzal, S. (2009). “A Comparative Analysis of CSR Strategies, Implementation and Outcomes – A Qualitative Case Study of IKEA, Starbucks and H&M”. Retrieved from: http://kau.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:395957/FULLTEXT01.pdf