06 May Program development
Program development is a complex, iterative process involving multiple steps and decision points. Program development is a multifaceted, iterative process comprised of multiple decision-making steps spanning from initial idea conception to efficacy and effectiveness testing to wide-scale dissemination and sustainability efforts (Onken, Carroll, Shoham, Cuthbert, & Riddle, 2014).
In general, the following three broad approaches to program development exist: theory-based (Glanz & Bishop, 2010), evidence-based (Cajkowski et al., 2015; Craig et al., 2013), and person-based (Yardley, Morrison, Bradbury, & Muller, 2015).
Each of the aforementioned program development approaches gives priority to a different input variable. In the theory-based approach, the theoretical framework that informs the program is given the greatest attention whereas in the evidence-based approach, the currently available research evidence coupled with program evaluation data is regarded as most important. In the person-based approach, the endusers of the program are considered to be the most valuable sources of information. Similarly, the person-based approach advocates for engaging in formative research efforts (e.g., focus groups, interviews, and stakeholder meetings) as the primary means for understanding the users’ perspectives and lived experiences (Yardley et al., 2015; Czymoniewicz-Klippel et al., 2018).
- Czymoniewicz-Klippel, M. T., Chesnut, R. P., DiNallo, J. M., Perkins, D. F. (2018). “Evidence-informed program development: Using a common components approach to develop universal parenting programs for U.S. military and civilian families”. Children and Youth Services Review 90, 166–177.
- Yardley, L., Morrison, L., Bradbury, K., & Muller, I. (2015). “The person-based approach to intervention development: Application to digital health-related behavior change interventions”. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17, e30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/ jmir.4055.
- Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., & Petticrew, M. (2013). “Developing and evaluating complex interventions: The new Medical Research Council guidance”. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50, 587–592. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.09.010.
- Cajkowski, S. M., Powell, L. H., Adler, N., Naar-King, S., Reynolds, K. D., Hunter, C. M., Charlson, M. E. (2015). “From ideas to efficacy: The ORBIT model for developing behavioral treatments for chronic diseases”. Health Psychology, 34, 971–982. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000161.
- Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. B. (2010). “The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions”. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 399–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103604.
- Onken, L. S., Carroll, K. M., Shoham, V., Cuthbert, B. N., & Riddle, M. (2014).”Reenvisioning clinical science: Unifying the discipline to improve the public health”. Clinical Psychological Science: A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 2, 22–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167702613497932.