10 Aug Ergonomic Design
Ergonomics is defined as the study of designing or arranging workplaces, products and systems for useful purposes (Turhan et al. 2015; Wears and Perry, 2002).
Business executives generally ignore the effect of the workplace environment on employees and their reflection on their performance. However, the employee-oriented improvements made for the workplaces significantly affect the performance of the enterprises (Gul, 2019).
Designing safe workplaces in modular construction is critical to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), which can lead to decreased productivity and increased workers’ compensation costs (Li et al., 2015), since WMSDs are a primary cause of lost work days and temporary or permanent disability (Meerding et al., 2005). In this respect, ergonomic job analysis for assessing work-related tasks is implemented by various techniques, such as REBA, RULA, Ovako working posture analysis system (OWAS) (Karhu et al., 1977), Quick exposure check (QEC) (Li and Buckle, 1998), 3D static strength prediction program (3DSSPP) (University of Michigan, 2018), JACK (Siemens PLM Software, 2018), and ERGOBUILD (Nussbaum et al., 2012). These ergonomic job assessment techniques can be classified by observation-based or computer-based methods. There are numerous observation-based methods such as OWAS, REBA, RULA, and QEC. These methods generally provide quantitative frameworks which provide ergonomic risk scores in accordance with a worker’s postures. The OWAS model has been designed to identify the posture load and force used in moderate to heavy assembly tasks in the steel industry based on the random scheduling of observations to reflect the magnitude of risk. REBA assesses risks posed by static and repeated work postures for the entire body (neck, trunk, legs, upper and lower arms, and wrist) and assigns final risk scores, risk classifications, and recommendations. The RULA tool is commonly used to assess upper body (neck, trunk, upper and lower arms, and wrist) based on assessment of the force/load and muscle use. The scales of the final scores in REBA and RULA differ one from the other. As a result, these observation-based methods provide the following benefits: (i) inexpensive and practical risk assessment for use in a wide range of workplaces; and (ii) good applicability for a wide range of risk factors in static postures and repetitive tasks (Hignett and McAtamney, 2000; McAtamney and Corlett, 1993; Inyang et al., 2012; Li et al., 2019).
- Gul, M. (2019). “Emergency department ergonomic design evaluation: A case study using fuzzy DEMATEL-focused two-stage methodology”. Health Policy and Technology.
- Hignett, S., McAtamney, L. (2000). “Rapid entire body assessment (REBA)”. Appl. Ergon. 31 (2) (2000) 201–205, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-6870(99)00039-3.
- Inyang, N., Al-Hussein, M., El-Rich, M., Al-Jibouri, S. (2012). “Ergonomic analysis and the need for its integration for planning and assessing construction tasks”. J. Constr. Eng. Manag. 138 (2012) 1370–1376, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.
- Karhu, O., Kansi, P., Kuorinka, I. (1977). “Correcting working postures in industry: a practical method for analysis”. Appl. Ergon. 8 (4) (1977) 199–201, https://doi.org/10.1016/ 0003-6870(77)90164-8.
- Li, G., Buckle, P. (1998). “A practical method for the assessment of work-related musculoskeletal risks-quick exposure check (QEC)”. Proceedings, The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 42nd Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA, Oct. 5–9, 1998, ttps://doi.org/10.1177/154193129804201905.
- Li, X., Fan, G., Abudan, A., Sukkarieh, M., Inyang, N., Gül, M., El-Rich, M., AlHussein, M. (2015). “Ergonomics and physical demand construction manufacturing facility analysis”. Proceedings, 5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 8–10, 2015, https://doi.org/10.14288/ 1.0076405.
- Li, X., Han, S., Gül, M., Al-Hussein, M. (2019). “Automated post-3D visualization ergonomic analysis system for rapid workplace design in modular construction”. Automation in Construction, 98, 160-174.
- McAtamney, L., Corlett, E.N. (1993). “RULA: a survey method for the investigation of workrelated upper limb disorders”. Appl. Ergon. 24 (2) (1993) 91–99, https://doi.org/10. 1016/0003-6870(93)90080-S.
- Meerding, W.J., Ijzelenberg, W., Koopmanschap, M.A., Severens, J.L., Burdorf, A. (2005). “Health problems lead to considerable productivity loss at work among workers with high physical load jobs”. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 58 (5) (2005) 517–523, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.06.016.
- Nussbaum, M., Shewchuk, J., Kim, S., Seol, H., Guo, C. (2012). “Development of a decision support system for residential construction using panelised walls: approach and preliminary results”. Ergonomics 52 (1) (2009) 87–103, https://doi.org/10.1080/ 00140130802480869.
- Siemens PLM Software, JACK, Siemens PLM Software, 2011 https://www.plm. automation.siemens.com/en_in/Images/4917_tcm641-4952.pdf> , Accessed date: May 2018.
- Turhan, E., Özdemir, G., & Özdemir, Y. (2015). “Yeşil ergonomiye genel bakış”. Mühendislik Bilimleri ve Tasarım Dergisi, 3(3), 559-565.
- University of Michigan, Center of Ergonomics, 3D static strength prediction program, http://djhurij4nde4r.cloudfront.net/attachments/files/000/000/284/ original/Manual_606.pdf?1406656210>, (2012) , Accessed date: April 2018.
- Wears, R. L., & Perry, S. J. (2002). “Human factors and ergonomics in the emergency department”. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 40(2), 206-212.