17 Aug Intelligent Tutoring System
Intelligent Tutoring System
An Intelligent Team Tutoring System was built for a two-person collaborative task. This collaborative problem solving task required significant communication to achieve the common goal of perfect surveillance (Ostrander et al., 2019).
Although the need for collaborative problem solving in modern work and social systems is pervasive, it is not always realized effectively. Graesser et al. (2017) have suggested that Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) could provide further direction in this area to grant new perspectives on team assessment. ITSs have been quite successful in the instruction of individuals across a variety of domains.
When discussing ITTSs, it is important to consider several characteristics of the system: 1) the team composition (e.g., roles and background training of team members), 2) the role of the tutor (e.g., supervisory vs. a team member performing the tasks alongside humans), 3) unit of assessment (team, individual, or both), and 4) the type of feedback given, if any. These are just four of several characteristics that could be used to characterize a team tutor (Bonner et al., 2015; Fiore et al., 2017).
Several new challenges arise when attempting to tutor a collaborative problem solving team due to the complex and dynamic interactions among multiple users working together. Whereas an ITS for an individual need only perceive and respond to the user’s direct input to the system, a successful Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) must interact with all users and monitor interactions between users. There are many different compositions of teams, team tasks, backgrounds of team members, and the approaches that are used to assess performance and provide feedback will be highly dependent on the team, the task, and the problem domain (Graesser et al., 2018). It is necessary to explicitly determine the different tasks that team members will be performing, how the team is structured, and how the system will communicate information to the team. In collaborative problem solving, team members tend to all have the same goal – to solve a problem together or to collaboratively complete a task (Fiore et al., 2017; Hao, Liu, von Davier, & Kyllonen, 2017).
- Bonner, D., Gilbert, S., Dorneich, M. C., Burke, S., Walton, J., Ray, C., & Winer, E. (2015). “Taxonomy of Teams, Team Tasks, and Tutors”. In Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) Users Symposium (GIFTSym2) (pp. 189-198).
- Fiore, S. M., Graesser, A., Greiff, S., Griffin, P., Gong, B., Kyllonen, P., Massey, C., O’Neil, H., Pellegrino, J., Rothman, R., Soulé, H., & von Davier, A. (2017). “Collaborative Problem Solving: Considerations for the National Assessment of Educational Progress”. Alexandria, VA: National Center for Educational Statistics.
- Graesser, A. C., Foltz, P. W., Rosen, Y., Shaffer, D. W., Forsyth, C., & Germany, M.-L. (2018). “Challenges of Assessing Collaborative Problem Solving”. In E. Care, P. Griffin & M. Wilson (Eds.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills: Research and Applications (pp. 75-91). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
- Graesser, A. C., Cai, Z., Hu, X., Foltz, P. W., Greiff, S., Kuo, B.-C., & Shaffer, D. W. (2017). “Assessment of collaborative problem solving”. In R. Sottilare, A. Graesser, X. Hu & G. Goodwin (Eds.), Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Assessment Methods (Vol. 5, pp. 275-286). Orlando, FL: US Army Research Laboratory.
- Hao, J., Liu, L., von Davier, A. A., & Kyllonen, P. C. (2017). “Initial Steps Towards a Standardized Assessment for Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS): Practical Challenges and Strategies”. In A. A. von Davier, M. Zhu & P. C. Kyllonen (Eds.), Innovative assessment of collaboration (pp. 135-156). Cham: Springer
- Ostrander, A., Bonner, D., Walton, J., Slavina, A., Ouverson, K., Kohl, A., Gilbert, S., Dorneich, M., Sinatra, A., Winer, E. (2019). “Evaluation of an Intelligent Team Tutoring System for a Collaborative Two-Person Problem: Surveillance”. Computers in Human Behavior, S0747-5632(19)30015-9.