12 Sep Cognitive approach
The decision theory studying control problems for systems of various nature (technical, biological, socio-economic) has become independent science branch during last decades. The decision theory actively uses methods of mathematics, psychology, informatics. The cognitive simulation is one of the new approaches of modern decision theory. The methods of cognitive simulation have found an application in collective working out and making decisions (Hart, 1976; Roberts, 1976).
The development of cognitive simulation methods is substantially conditioned by need in analysis of ill-structured systems and situations including multitude of elements with different nature, as well as relationships between elements having both quantitative and qualitative nature.
The distinctive feature of cognitive approach consists in the following:
- Process of solving of control problems is considered as cognitive human activity including application of formal models and methods as a part or stage of solution.
- Another important stage is formalization of representation of ill-structured systems and situations, goals, interests and motivations of individuals involved into the problem solution processes.
The cognitive simulation in problems of analysis and control of ill-structured systems is the research of operation and development of ill-structured systems and situations via construction of ill-structured system (or situation) model on the base of cognitive map.
The cognitive map is the concept concerning cognitive processes related to gathering, representation, and processing of information on the environment during which an individual is not only a passive observer, but actively interacts with his environment. Forming cognitive maps by an individual is understood as the process consisting of series of psychological transformations. By means of these transformations, an individual gathers, stores, copies, recalls and manipulates information on relative locations and attributes of his spatial surroundings. This process is essential component of decision making for spatial behavior (Avdeeva and Kovriga, 2008).
The theory of metacognition is a cognitive process that regulates the cognitive process, or is knowledge of the cognitive process and the result (Vliet E A V, et al. 2015). Metacognition mainly includes three basic elements of knowledge, experience and monitoring, which is the need for the individual to adjust the current cognitive activities (Tomporowski P D, et al. 2015; Xiangmin, 2018).
- Avdeeva, Z., Kovriga, S. (2008). “Cognitive Approach in Simulation and Control”. Proceedings of the 17th World Congress,The International Federation of Automatic ControlSeoul, Korea, July 6-11, 2008.
- Hart, J. (1976). “Comparative Cognition: Politics of International Control of the Oceans”. In R. Axelrod, editor, Structure of Decision. The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1976.
- Roberts, F. (1976). “Discrete mathematical models with applications to social, biological and environmental problems”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1976.
- Tomporowski, P.D., Mccullick, B., Pendleton, D.M., et al. (2015). “Exercise and children’s cognition: The role of exercise characteristics and a place for metacognition”. Journal of Sport & Health Science, 2015, 4(1):47-55.
- Vliet, E.A.V., Winnips, J.C., Brouwer, N. (2015). “Flipped-Class Pedagogy Enhances Student Metacognition and Collaborative-Learning Strategies in Higher Education But Effect Does Not Persist”. Cbe Life Sciences Education, 2015, 14(3):17.
- Xiangmin, L. (2018). ” Characteristics and Rules of College English Education based on Cognitive Process Simulation”. Cognitive Systems Research.