19 Sep Green Marketing
Green marketing consists in the activities conceived to produce and facilitate the commercialization of products or services to satisfy human desires and needs, yet causing a minimum impact in the environment . Product and package modifications, as well as changes in manufacturing processes and advertising, are some examples in this regard. To Peattie , green marketing is an administrative holistic process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumer and society demands, in a lucrative and sustainable way. In this sense, one must acknowledge a relationship between morality and green marketing. The environment is assumed as part of a group of ethical questions that marketing needs to analyze and debate . Hence, green marketing is part of the social responsibility.
A marketing concept that considers minimizing the impacts on the environment has an important role in satisfying customers’ needs and obtaining firm outcomes . As such, it is an integral part of the corporate strategy . It implies adaptations of the traditional marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion) and establishes bonds with issues such as industrial ecology, environmental sustainability, social responsibility, product lifecycle analysis, material use and resource fluxes and eco efficiency. Green marketing leads marketers to go beyond the manufacturing internal processes or the external processes of bonding to consumers, and to consider the impact of manufacturing and consumption in society’s quality of life and sustainable development . Hence, green marketing success depends on firms’ attending to the 4 Ss :
- Satisfaction of consumers’ needs;
- Safety of products and manufacturing to consumers, workers, society and environment;
- Social acceptance of products, manufacturing and complementary activities;
- Sustainability of products, manufacturing and complementary activities.
As a concept, green marketing evolved over time . In the early 1970s, the concern was focused in pollution . Then, in the 1980s new concepts emerged, such as clean technology, sustainability, consumption and creating competitive advantages. Whereas in the first stage the focus was on manufacturing industries, in the latter all services and manufacturing methods were included . In the end of the 1990s, the emphasis is on building and maintaining sustainable relationships with customers and with social and natural environments . With the increased global concern of environmental quality, green marketing has gradually acquired more importance and widened its scope. Following this trend, green marketing became viral, with concepts such as “eco-friendly” or “going green” gaining ground . Furthermore, international firms, aiming to expand their market, increase their sales and benefiting from the positive image of their domestically established green brands, created international green marketing . Hence, green marketing got more awareness and a wider and global scope.
Even though green marketing got a vast reach, not all firms fully apply it, even opting for ecological practices. Even firms with environmental operations tend to develop strategies that emphasize the ecological aspects in some of their activities rather than in all activities .
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