Amir Zakaria Consulting Group | Culture
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Culture is related to and structures human lived experience in the world, beginning at birth, based on gestures, words, tones of voice, sounds, colors, smells, and body contact we experience [8]. A shared culture may be described as a collection of experiences and ways of relating in society that are familiar, recognizable, habitual, that “go without saying”, establishing a definition of “normal”. However, culture is complex and multifaceted concept; it can be attributed to a nation, an organization, a group, or even to an individual because it is shaped by human social environments [9]. Therefore, culture is a sensitive subject and not a depiction of rigid stereotypes [10]. However, common characteristics may exist that distinguish one culture from another [10]. In the present work, we focus on the impact of national and organizational culture on software development operations.


  • Van Maanen, A. Laurent, The flow of culture: some notes on globalization and the multinational corporation, in: Organization theory and the multinational corporation, Springer, 1993, pp. 275–312.
  • G.H. Hofstede, G.J. Hofstede, M. Minkov, Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, Mcgraw-hill New York, 2005.
  • Carmel, R. Agarwal, Tactical approaches for alleviating distance in global software deveopment, IEEE Softw. 18 (2001) 22–29.

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